## Saturday, October 23, 2010

(Excerpts)

The Big Bang & The Expanding Universe
by John Mark

The Hubble Law, also called the Hubble equation describes the relation of the velocity and the distance from the observer of each of many galaxies observed over a wide range by Edwin Hubble, Vesto Slipher, Milton Humason and their associates and successors, and it is the velocity= H x distances or, if v=velocity and s=distances, namely v=Hs in which H is the Hubble Constant - a constant of proportionality.

For each galaxy, the velocity v is calculated from red shift, spectographic observations and from the Doppler effect. The distances from the observer s was determined from the absolute brightness, from the period called Cepheid variables, the Cepheid variable stars were the key instruments in Edwin Hubble’s 1923 conclusion that M31 (Andromeda) was an external galaxy as opposed to a smaller nebula within the Milky Way, from the apparent brightness measurements, and from the Inverse Square Law relating those measurements to distances.

As can be seen from this equation, H has the dimension of time with H- (with minus superscript) and is based on many observations of many galaxies over a wide range of distances and corresponding velocities.

The value of H- is determined as being between the limits of 15 kilometers per second per million light years, and 30 kilometers per second per million light years, or the equivalent limits of 50 kilometers per second per megaparsec and 10 kilometers per megaparsec.
These limits are approximately equivalent to V=1/H having the dimension of time lying between the limits of 10 x 109 years and 20 x 109 years, and 15 x 109 years that are often being used as acceptable value.

Why is this important?

Because answering this question correctly will help us understand whether there was something before, or whether there was nothing before. If the Universe is expanding faster than the speed of light under the influence of Dark Matter that comprises roughly 96% of all space, either way the answer is fascinating, but I don’t think the answer is in the Higgs boson, or in the Higgs field, or in even correctly quantifying and in understanding Dark Matter.

For over a 1,000 years humanity has been stuck on “earth-is-flat” concept until Copernican revolution has changed it, and for nearly 100 years now we have been stuck on Einstein’s quantum mechanics and quantum relativity, and both are being seriously questioned although many other tenets in Einstein's assertions, as in other theories are still valid and irrefutable.

There are and there will be many more laws for humanity to discover for millions of years that will make our current models, theories and beliefs look as obsolete and silly as Aristotle’s conviction that the heart was the center of cognition, or worse, hence in as much as we would like to connect various string theory variables with contemporary models of reality we also realize that asking those questions over and over again in different context in search for more intelligible answers is crucial to everyone.

The concept of all different galaxies being packed together at infinite density at the same instant, and the subseqeuent “Big Bang”, as well as the concept of “the Age of The Universe” being equal to 1/H, or a fraction of 1/H maybe impossible precisely as the consequence of the Hubble observations and the Hubble Law with respect to the calculation of t=s/v as the same conclusions can be presented in a slightly different way as follows:

Let the observed galaxy be labeled 1G 2G 3G 4G nG etc. going in order from the distant to the less distant, and let the observed distance for the galaxy 1G be labeled 1s ob, for galaxy 2G let it be 2s ob and the observed galaxy 3G be labeled 3s ob with nG representing nsob so that 1sob> 2s ob> 3s ob> 4s ob> ns ob and let the corresponding observed velocities be labeled in the same way, e.g. 1v obfor galaxy 1G, 2v ob for galaxy 2G, 3v ob for galaxy 3G, 4vob for galaxy 4G, nv ob for galaxy nG, so that 1v ob>2v ob> 3v ob> 4vob> continue as ns ob, etc.

Thus, every galaxy observed with n meaning unobserved is older that one going back to the moment of s=0 from the point of observation where 1/H, or a fraction of 1/H in the so-called “Age of the Universe” in order of its distance sob as observed over a wide range, could not equal 0 simultaneously for different galaxies, or their precursors, therefore, the Hubble Law even if altered in order to conform to “The Age of the Universe” hypothesis equals 1/H , and even if when the time interval is calculated with the equation of t=s/v is not and cannot be the basis for, and actually contradicts the concept of “The Age of the Universe” equal 1/H, or 2/3 x 1/H scenario.

Likewise, the Hubble Law is not and cannot be the basis for such dependent concepts as a theory, namely that all the galaxies, or their precursors were packed together simultaneously at infinite density in zero volume with s=0 and t=0 for each galaxy, and the ensuing concept of “The Big Bang”.

Moreover, the complicated physics and stages of the first second after “The Big Bang” along with different theories of inflation, specifically the concept of singularity, and the existence of quantum gravity occuring at the instant of “The Big Bang”, the concept of the microwave radiation background observed today as a relic of radiation from the early universe and widely acknowledged as the evidence of “The Big Bang”’, including all the concepts directly dependent on “The Big Bang” theory such as the age of the universe equal 1/H, or a fraction of 1/H combined with Friedman-Robertson-Walker models whether with standard, or distorted version of the Hubble Law together, simply do not and cannot compute.

Let us digress a little bit, namely if we accept some form of “non-local” deterministic reality whereby we assume that some things travel faster than the speed of light, we will be violating Einstein’s special theory of relativity; and Einstein has created this paradox himself by introducing quantum mechanics and special relativity theories together that contradict one another whereby on the quantum level signals do travel faster than the speed of light, and according to "The Big Bang" theory the Universe is expanding at speeds faster than the speed of light, and whereby special theory of relativity expressly prohibits this. So was Einstein wrong?

Not necessarily. In fact, we are simply trying to get beyond Einstein and the inherent paradox in the special relativity theory and quantum mechanics in search of new rules that govern the behavior of matter and energy, hence the subsequent refutation of the Big Bang theory is not a surprise, or exception, while realizing at the same time that at some point we may have to let go of it as well.

If the Hubble law were not abandoned, as it has been by assuming that v was a constant, and H a variable, and the original Hubble Law v=Hs were followed, with v a variable and H a constant, then calculating t, the time corresponding to the increase of the distance of 0 to s as calculated from equation t=s/v would require t, not only as t=tob and s=sob but all other values of s, except 0 at s=0, t=s/v = 0/0 an indeterminate number we would not have “The Big Bang Theory”.

Morever, the limit of s/v as s and v approach 0 is 1/H, thus by calculating from t= s/v, t would equal 1/H, not only for sob - the observed distance, and vob - the observed distances and velocities of galaxies as they existed in the distant past, but for all other values of s and v, including s=0 for every galaxy. It appears from these equations employing t=s/v as a method for calculating time intervals under the unaltered Hubble Law gives unreasonable and inconclusive results, implying that the method is faulty.

The method to present the reciprocal of the constant H of proportionality, i.e. 1/H having the dimension of time as an actual time span, and the hastily arrived at conclusion that the time interval from 0 to tob corresponding to the distance interval from s=0 to s= sob was given by the equation of t= tob =sob divided by vob=1 divided by Ho for each galaxy led to the concept that the age of the Universe equal 1/Ho given the absence of gravity, the concept of the “Big Bang Theory” and to the subsequent theories ensuing therefrom.

To maintain these concepts and at the same time to maintain the appearance of conforming to the Hubble Law as required, as described above the subtle alteration, without being obvious, and without negligently appearing was presented of the Hubble Law except at Vo=Ho sob.

Another assumption, or perhaps it was an oversight without any awareness that it was being assumed was that the observed distance sob and the observed velocity vob for each galaxy were existing at the moment when each observation was being made. This assumption is repeated whenever the statement is made that 1/H (“Hubble Time”) or a fraction of 1/H is the “Age of the Universe” from the beginning to the present, and also by the designation of the value of H as determined by the observation of Hubble et al, with Ho defined as “present” value of H.

In actuality, all the observations made by Hubble, Humason and their successors were of the sobs -the observed distance, and vobs - the observed distances and velocities of galaxies as they existed in the distant past, and the time interval to the present being in direct proportion to the sob - the observed distance for each galaxy.

Thus the concept of all the different galaxies being packed together at infinite density at the same instant and the subsequent “Big Bang”, as well as the concept of the Age of the Universe being equal to 1/H or to a fraction of 1/H appears to be impossible as the consequence of Hubble observations and the Hubble Law, even when the Hubble Law is distorted to conform to this result, and even when the calculation of t is made using the equation of t=-s/v, incorrectly, and a distortion by standard cosmology rules, as described above.

Does this mean we never had a "Big Bang" and all known and observable matter did not really come from the "primeval atom"? Can we point-point to the "accounting error" that created the "Big Bang" and is responsible for the creation of all visible matter 13.7 Billion years ago?

Does this mean we are back to "earth-is-flat" concept as we tend to generalize and force all our unanswered questions into "The Big Bang" theory because there are actually no better answers right now, and yet "The Big Bang" theory looks good, sounds good and has a distinct aura of authority around itself? Not quite, but scientists and researchers like myself are looking at startling new evidence that is pointing in new and different direction.

PART I

In order to observe the density of the mass during the "Big Bang" explosion we must take a look at the time interval from t=0 to tob was assumed to be tob = sob divided by vob = 1/H and calculated incorrectly in my opinion from the observed values of sob and vob for each galaxy that would correspond to the distance interval for each galaxy from s=0 to sob. In fact sob was considered the value at the moment of observation, ignoring the additional time interval from the light bearing the values of sob and vob to travel from the galaxy to the observer. This additional time interval was sob expressed in years (if sob was observed in light years, or the appropriate amounts with other units) for each galaxy.

Thus the time interval from the moment when t=0 and s=0 to the moment the observation was being made, herein labeled tsi, was tsi = tob + sob in years = 1/H + sob in years (or in equivalent units) for each galaxy. Let the subscript on the lower left side designate the particular galaxy with which the quantity is associated, thus sob vob tob ( sob divided by vob), tsi, s for each galaxy labeled aG asob avob atob atsi as and for galaxy labeled bG bsob bvob btob btsi bs.

Since, for all, or nearly all galaxies the observed distances are different galaxies - aG bG can be two such galaxies, so that asob tdoes not equal bsob and since atsi equals 1/H plus bsob in years 1/H plus asob does not equal 1/H plus bsob and thus atsi does not equal btsi so that extrapolating from the moment of observation as=0 and bs=0 occur at different intervals of the time in the past from the moments of observation and thus do not occur simultaneously.

Consequently, the concept of all the different galaxies being packed together at infinite density at the same instant, and the subsequent "Big Bang", as well as the concept of the age of the Universe being equal to 1/H or to a fraction of 1/H, appear to be impossible as consequences of the Hubble observations, and the Hubble law, even when the Hubble law is distorted to conform to this result which I believe it has been by man, and even when the calculation of t is made using the equation t = s/v (incorrectly, in my view), and a distortion by standard cosmology as described above.

What I am herein describing in effect is the age and the expansion of the Universe based on the Hubble Law that has either been distorted and manipulated to wrongly illustrate the concept of all the different galaxies being packed together at infinite density at the same instant. Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity clearly postulates that space-time measurements are relative to the movement of reference frames whereby in essence there's no simultaneity at a distance anymore, but that they are relative to the measurements of space and time that are not dependent on our subjective experience, but are of objective nature entirely relative to the relations of the velocities of what we measure and what we measure them with. Further, as the invariance of space-time measurements appears only in abstract mathematical formula, even if the Hubble Law has not been distorted to confirm the results which have been calculated incorrectly, the following equation points succinctly to the same exact conclusion about the derivation from the Hubble Law using the equation of t= s/v to calculate t that can also be presented as follows:

Let the observed galaxies be labeled 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G ............. nG going in order from the more distant to the less distant, and let the observed distance for galaxy 1G be labeled 1sob, for galaxy 2G 2sob, for galaxy 3G 3sob, and so on for galaxy nG nsob, so that 1sob> 2s ob> 3s ob> 4s ob> ns ob and the corresponding observed velocities labeled in the same way, i.e. 1v ob for galaxy 1G 2v ob for galaxy 2G 3v ob for galaxy 3G and so on to nv ob for galaxy nG so that 1vob> 2v ob> 3v ob> 4v ob> nv ob.

The additional time interval for the light carrying the information on the values of sob and vob in each case from the galaxy to the observer is sob expressed in years (or other equivalent units), since it requires sob in years for light to travel sob light years. Thus the time elapsed, in each case, from t=0 when s=0 to t= tsi, the moment of observation, is tsi = tob = sob (in years or the equivalent).

Let the subscript on the lower left side designate the particular galaxy with which the quantity is associated. Thus sob vob tob (=sob/ vob), tsi, s for galaxy aG be designated asob, avob, atob, atsi , as and for galaxy bG be designated bsob, bvob, btob, btsi , bs .

Since for all, or nearly all, galaxies the observed distances are different, galaxies aG and bG can be two such galaxies, so that asob bsob and since

atsi = 1/H + asob in years and
btsi = 1/H + bsob in years
1/H + asob 1/H + bsob and thus atsi btsi

so that extrapolating back from the moment of observation, as =0 and bs =0 at different intervals of time in the past from the moment of observation and thus do not occur simultaneously.

Thus the concept of all the different galaxies being packed together at infinite density at the same instant and the subsequent "Big Bang" as well as the concept of "The Age of the Universe" being equal to 1/H or a fraction thereof appear to be impossible as consequences of the Hubble observations and the Hubble Law, even when the calculation of ti is made using the equation t = s/v (incorrectly in my opinion) and as distorted by standard cosmology, as described above.

PART II and CONCLUSION:

Coming soon..... Part II and Conclusion proving decades long invariance about "The Big Bang" and scientific explanation why current estimations of the actual age of our Universe based on Hubble law have been grossly miscalculated.

Also, "Beyond the M-Theory" - how do we solve the dilemma of Expanding Universe and solve the mystery of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Also coming up Theory of Everything and the dualistic and unpredictable behavior of energy, Higgs Field and relativistic influence of time and its postulated behavior along with missing components in the Standard Model that are dramatically changing current views in contemporary theoretical physics.