**(Excerpts)**

**the velocity= H**x

**distances**or, if

**v=velocity**and

**s=distances**, namely

**v=Hs**in which

**H i**s the

**Hubble Constant -**a constant of proportionality.

**velocity v**is calculated from red shift, spectographic observations and from the Doppler effect. The distances from the observer s was determined from the absolute brightness, from the period called Cepheid variables, the Cepheid variable stars were the key instruments in Edwin Hubble’s 1923 conclusion that

**M31**(Andromeda) was an external galaxy as opposed to a smaller nebula within the Milky Way, from the apparent brightness measurements, and from the Inverse Square Law relating those measurements to distances.

**H**has the dimension of time with

**H**(with minus superscript) and is based on many observations of many galaxies over a wide range of distances and corresponding velocities.

^{- }**H**is determined as being between the limits of 15 kilometers per second per million light years, and 30 kilometers per second per million light years, or the equivalent limits of 50 kilometers per second per megaparsec and 10 kilometers per megaparsec.

^{-}**V=1/H**having the dimension of time lying between the limits of 10 x 10

^{9 }years and 20 x 10

^{9 }years, and 15 x 10

^{9 }years that are often being used as acceptable value.

**Why is this important?**

**1/H,**or a fraction of

**1/H**maybe impossible precisely as the consequence of the Hubble observations and the Hubble Law with respect to the calculation of

**t=s/v**as the same conclusions can be presented in a slightly different way as follows:

**1**

^{G }2^{G }3^{G }4^{G }n^{G}^{ }etc. going in order from the distant to the less distant, and let the observed distance for the galaxy

**1**be labeled

^{G }**1**for galaxy

^{s }ob,**2**let it be

^{G }**2**and the observed galaxy

^{s }ob**3**be labeled

^{G }**3**with

^{s }ob**n**represen

^{G }**n**so that

^{s}ob**1**and let the corresponding observed velocities be labeled in the same way,

^{s}ob> 2^{s }ob> 3^{s }ob> 4^{s }ob> n^{s }ob*e.g.*

**1**for galaxy

^{v }ob**1**,

^{G}**for galaxy**

^{}2^{v }ob**2**,

^{G}**3**for galaxy

^{v }ob**3**,

^{G}**4**for galaxy

^{v}ob**4**,

^{G}**n**for galaxy

^{v }ob**n**, so that

^{G}**1**continue as

^{v }ob>2^{v }ob> 3^{v }ob> 4^{v}ob>**n**

^{s }ob, etc.

*n**meaning unobserved is older that one going back to the moment of*

**s=0**from the point of observation where

**1/H,**or a fraction of

**1/H**in the so-called “Age of the Universe” in order of its distance

**s**

^{ob }^{}as observed over a wide range, could not equal

**0**simultaneously for different galaxies, or their precursors, therefore, the Hubble Law even if altered in order to conform to “The Age of the Universe” hypothesis equals 1/H , and even if when the time interval is calculated with the equation of

**t=s/v**is not and cannot be the basis for, and actually contradicts the concept of “The Age of the Universe” equal

**1/H,**or

**2/3 x 1/H**scenario.

**s=0**and

**t=0**for each galaxy, and the ensuing concept of “The Big Bang”.

**1/H**, or a fraction of

**1/H**combined with Friedman-Robertson-Walker models whether with standard, or distorted version of the Hubble Law together, simply do not and cannot compute.

**v**was a constant, and

**H**a variable, and the original Hubble Law

**v=Hs**were followed, with

**v**a variable and

**H**a constant, then calculating

**t**, the time corresponding to the increase of the distance of

**0**to

**s**as calculated from equation

**t=s/v**would require

**t**, not only as

**t**=

**tob**and

**s**=

**sob**but all other values of

**s**, except

**0**at

**s=0**,

**t=s/v = 0/0**an indeterminate number we would not have “The Big Bang Theory”.

**s/v**as

**s**and

**v**approach

**0**

**1/H,**thus by calculating from

**t= s/v**,

**t**would equal

**1/H**, not only for

**sob -**the observed distance, and

**vob -**the observed distances and velocities of galaxies as they existed in the distant past, but for all other values of

**s**and

**v**, including

**s=0**for every galaxy. It appears from these equations employing

**t=s/v**as a method for calculating time intervals under the unaltered Hubble Law gives unreasonable and inconclusive results, implying that the method is faulty.

**H**of proportionality, i.e.

**1/H**having the dimension of time as an actual time span, and the hastily arrived at conclusion that the time interval from

**0**to

**tob**corresponding to the distance interval from

**s=0**to

**s= sob**was given by the equation of

**t= tob =sob**divided by

**vob=1**divided by

**Ho**for each galaxy led to the concept that the age of the Universe equal

**1/Ho**given the absence of gravity, the concept of the “Big Bang Theory” and to the subsequent theories ensuing therefrom.

**Vo**=

**Ho sob.**

**Another assumption, or perhaps it was an oversight without any awareness that it was being assumed was that the observed distance sob and the observed velocity vob for each galaxy were existing at the moment when each observation was being made. This assumption is repeated whenever the statement is made that**

**1/H**(“Hubble Time”) or a fraction of

**1/H**is the “Age of the Universe” from the beginning to the present, and also by the designation of the value of

**H**as determined by the observation of Hubble et al, with

**Ho**defined as “present” value of

**H.**

**In actuality, all the observations made by Hubble, Humason and their successors were of the**

**sob**’s

**-the observed distance, and**

**vob**’s - the observed distances and velocities of galaxies as they existed in the distant past, and the time interval to the present being in direct proportion to the

**sob -**the observed distance for each galaxy.

**1/H**or to a fraction of

**1/H**appears to be impossible as the consequence of Hubble observations and the Hubble Law, even when the Hubble Law is distorted to conform to this result, and even when the calculation of

**t**is made using the equation of

**t=-s/v**, incorrectly, and a distortion by standard cosmology rules, as described above.

**t=0**to

**tob**was assumed to be

**tob = sob**divided by

**vob = 1/H**and calculated incorrectly in my opinion from the observed values of

**sob**and

**vob**for each galaxy that would correspond to the distance interval for each galaxy from

**s=0**to

**sob**

**.**In fact

**sob**was considered the value at the moment of observation, ignoring the additional time interval from the light bearing the values of

**sob**and

**vob**to travel from the galaxy to the observer. This additional time interval was sob expressed in years (if

**sob**was observed in light years, or the appropriate amounts with other units) for each galaxy.

**tsi**, was

**tsi**=

**tob**+

**sob**in years = 1/H +

**sob**in years (or in equivalent units) for each galaxy. Let the subscript on the lower left side designate the particular galaxy with which the quantity is associated, thus

^{s}ob

^{v}ob^{t}

**ob**(

^{s}

**ob**divided by

^{v}

**ob**),

^{t}

**si,**s for each galaxy labeled a

^{G }

**a**

^{s}ob a

^{v}ob**a**

^{t}ob**a**a

^{t}si^{s }and for galaxy labeled b

^{G }

**b**

^{s}ob b

^{v}ob**b**

^{t}ob**b**b

^{t}si^{s}.

^{G }b

^{G }can be two such galaxies, so that

**a**tdoes not equal

^{s}ob**b**and since

^{s}ob**a**equals

^{t}si**1/H**plus b

^{s}

**ob**in years 1/H plus a

^{s}

**ob**does not equal 1/H plus b

^{s}

**ob**and thus a

^{t}

**si**does not equal b

^{t}

**si**so that extrapolating from the moment of observation

**a**and

^{s=0 }**b**occur at different intervals of the time in the past from the moments of observation and thus do not occur simultaneously.

^{s=0 }**t**is made using the equation

**t = s/v**(incorrectly, in my view), and a distortion by standard cosmology as described above.

**t= s/v**to calculate

**t**that can also be presented as follows:

^{G }2

^{G }

^{ }3

^{G }4

^{G }5

^{G }............. n

^{G }going in order from the more distant to the less distant, and let the observed distance for galaxy 1

^{G }be labeled 1

^{s}

**ob**, for galaxy 2

^{G }2

^{s}

**ob**, for galaxy 3

^{G }3

^{s}

**ob**, and so on for galaxy

**n**

^{G }n

^{s}

**ob**, so that

**1**and the corresponding observed velocities labeled in the same way, i.e.

^{s}ob> 2^{s }ob> 3^{s }ob> 4^{s }ob> n^{s }ob**1**for galaxy

^{v }ob**1**

^{G }**for galaxy**

^{}2^{v }ob**2**

^{G }**3**for galaxy

^{v }ob**3**and so on to

^{G }**n**for galaxy n

^{v }ob**so that**

^{G }**1**.

^{v}ob> 2^{v }ob> 3^{v }ob> 4^{v }ob> n^{v }ob**and**

^{s}ob

^{v}

**ob**in each case from the galaxy to the observer is

**expressed in years (or other equivalent units), since it requires**

^{s}ob^{s}

**ob**in years for light to travel

^{s}

**ob**light years. Thus the time elapsed, in each case, from

**t=0**when

**s=0**to

**t=**

^{t}

**si**, the moment of observation, is

^{t}

**si**

**=**

^{t}

**ob**

**=**

^{s}

**ob**(in years or the equivalent).

^{s}ob

^{v}ob^{t}

**ob**(

**=**

^{s}ob/^{v}

**ob**),

^{t}

**si**,

**s**for galaxy

**be designated**

^{aG }**a**,

^{s}ob

**a**

**,**

^{v}ob

**a**,

^{t}ob

**a**

^{t}si**,**

**a**

^{s}**and**

**for galaxy**

**be designated**

^{bG }**b**,

^{s}ob

**b**

**,**

^{v}ob

**b**,

^{t}ob

**b**

^{t}si**,**

**b**.

^{s }**and**

^{aG }

^{ }**can be two such galaxies, so that**

^{bG }**a**≠

^{s}ob**b**and since

^{s}ob**a**a

^{t}si = 1/H +^{s}

**ob**in years and

**b**b

^{t}si = 1/H +^{s}

**ob**in years

**1/H +**a

^{s}

**ob**≠

**1/H +**b

^{s}

**ob**and thus

**a**≠

^{t}si**b**

^{t}si

**a**

^{s }**=0**and

**b**

^{s }**=0**at different intervals of time in the past from the moment of observation and thus do not occur simultaneously.

**1/H**or a fraction thereof appear to be impossible as consequences of the Hubble observations and the Hubble Law, even when the calculation of

**ti**is made using the equation

**t = s/v**(incorrectly in my opinion) and as distorted by standard cosmology, as described above.

**Coming soon..... Part II and Conclusion proving decades long invariance about "The Big Bang" and scientific explanation why current estimations of the actual age of our Universe based on Hubble law have been grossly miscalculated.**

**Also, "Beyond the M-Theory" - how do we solve the dilemma of Expanding Universe and solve the mystery of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Also coming up Theory of Everything and the dualistic and unpredictable behavior of energy, Higgs Field and relativistic influence of time and its postulated behavior along with missing components in the Standard Model that are dramatically changing current views in contemporary theoretical physics.**

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